Alcohol and Testosterone
Does alcohol help or hurt your testosterone? That's a question every guy
should ask himself. Alcohol is currently a much-loved chemical in the
health media and blogging worlds. After all, it is manly, helps with heart
disease and is often ground zero of our social universe.
However, for those of us who want to optimize our hormonal and testosterone
levels, alcohol, or ethanol as it is known scientifically, is certainly no friend. Animal studies, for example, found that
alcohol lowered testosterone levels in rats by about 40%.  We
also know that heavy drinkers (without liver disease) have significantly lowered
sperm counts, sperm motility and free testosterone.  By the way,
alcohol does not just affect testosterone but growth hormone levels as well. 
The short term reason for this is that acetylaldehyde, the primary breakdown
product of ethanol (alcohol), acts on the Leydig Cells directly to reduce
testosterone production. Even small dosage levels affect testosterone production
in isolated rat Leydig cells, a very bad sign indeed.  The drop in
testosterone can even be more severe in those with depleted Vitamin E levels.
Researchers found drops in testosterone of 50% in one study!  And
consider this: rats fed a 5% ethanol diet lose 50% of the weight of their
testicles.  Ouch!
NOTE: Researchers at the National Institute of Health believe that alcohol lowers testosterone through four
key mechanisms: 1) an increase in the opiod beta-endorphin, 2) a reduction in
testicular nitric oxide, 3) oxidative damage, 4) cell damage (from increased
oxidation).  All of these pathways will lower testosterone and explain why
alcohol is such a potent testosterone lowerer, especially in those who drink
more than moderately.
Okay, so alcohol is hard on rats and dogs - so what about humans? Sorry, but
alcohol has been found to be just as tough on human testosterone.
One study found that (a heavy dose) of alcohol on 8 adult males lowered
testosterone (and raised cortisol) for 24 hours afterward! 
A more recent study, almost twenty five years later, verified that drinkers in
the armed forces had lower free and total testosterone (and higher estrogen
What if you don't overdrink? The results are a little less noxious
according to one study out of the Netherlands. These researchers found
that moderate drinking lowered testosterone by 7% (but did raise HDL by 12%).
Alcohol is also a notorious estrogen-increaser. It does this by affecting
the liver's P450 enzyme subsystem in a negative way. Basically, it slows
down your body's ability to process estrogen, allowing it to build up in your
blood stream. That means, as good Peak Testosterone readers know, that
testosterone will be reduced because estrogen is a testosterone lowerer.
If you think about it, alcohol fights your testosterone in almost every negative
way possible: its breakdown products directly lowers Leydig cell
production and it increases cortisol and estrogen, both of which are known
testosterone blockers! And, as I have covered in another link on the Pros
and Cons of Alcohol, drinking raises the risk for all GI cancers as well.
Many guys drink for social reasons and the heart benefits, but I just cannot see
the advantage considering the fact that it can affect testosterone, estrogen and
cortisol levels in such a negative way. This is especially important for use
middle aged and beyond guys who are already struggling with these three hormones
just from the aging process! If you are exercising with a Low Fat Diet,
for example, your
heart will be strongly protected anyway. In other words, you don't need
And that's my summary really: you don't really need alcohol, so why bother? An
occasional social drink is no big deal, but otherwise I'd stick to good, clean
livin' and optimizing your testosterone. You need every last drop you can
Biology of Reproduction, Jan 1 1990, 42(1):55-62, "Effects of chronic ethanol
diet on pituitary-testicular function of the rat"
2) Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Res, 1997, 21(1):128-133, "Testicular
function in asymptomatic chronic alcoholics : Relation to ethanol intake"
3) J of Endocrinology, 1997, 152:477-487, "Ethanol, growth hormone and
testosterone in peripubertal rats"
4) Oxford Journals Medicine Alcohol and Alcoholism, 1987, 22:17-22,
"ETHANOL-INDUCED INHIBITION OF TESTOSTERONE BIOSYNTHESIS IN VITRO: LACK OF
5) Int J Vitam Nutr Res, 1987, 57(3): 267-71, "Plasma testosterone in rats
exposed to ethanol during vitamin E deficiency"
6) Endocrinology Vol, 1979, 105(4):888-895, "Alcohol-Induced Testicular Atrophy
in the Adult Male Rat"
7) Alcohol, Jan-Feb 1984, 1(1):89-93, "Sex hormones and adrenocortical steroids
in men acutely intoxicated with ethanol"
8) Bone, 2009 Sep, 45(3):449-54, Epub 2009 May 18, "Effect of alcohol consumption
on bone mineral density and hormonal parameters in physically active male
9) Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, Published Online 13 Apr 2006,
10) Mary Ann Emanuele, M.D., and Nicholas Emanuele, M.D., "Alcohol and the Male
Reproductive System", http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/arh25-4/282-287.htm