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5. Memory Loss and Brain Shrinkage.. A number of studies have shown that higher-than-normal, long term cortisol levels can damage the hippocampus, the seat of memory for all humans.  Furthermore, several structures of the brain, especially the hippocampus, have been shown to actually shrink with long term cortisol exposure. 
NOTE: If you feel you have likely damaged and/or shrunk your brain matter due to excess stress/cortisol, don't panic. Researchers have found good evidence that the brain shrinkage is actually reversible (to one degree or another) for a number of high-cortisol conditions, including depression  and Cushing's . The reversibility (significant but partial) of Cushing's Syndrome brain matter loss is particularly significant considering the severity of the disease.
In addition, you can likely rebuild and increase your brain through mindfulness meditation  or the vispanna meditation.  Progressive Muscle Relaxation will certainly protect your hippocampus from damage and may help to rebuild it as well.
CAUTION: Some psychiatric illnesses (PTSD, i.e. Post-traumatic Stress Syndrome are actually characterized by low serus cortisol levels. This is probably due to overexcitation of cortisol for many years.
6. Blood Pressure. It is no secret that stress raises blood pressure and can be a significant factor in hypertension. So it should be no shock that the primary stress hormone, cortisol, has been found in multiple studies to raise blood pressure.  Of course, hypertension is a leading cause as I document in my link on High Blood Pressure and Erectile Dysfunction.
7. Arteriosclerosis. One study verified 5 and 6 but also found that, not too surprisingly, that higher morning cortisol levels were associated with accelerated arteriosclerosis, i.e. arterial plaque. 
8. Neuroticism and Depression. Higher morning cortisol levels have been associated with your odds of being neurotic  and may also play a role in developing depression. 
9. Metabolic Syndrome. Thanks to #1, many researchers believe that elevated cortisol may be the primary cause of the Metabolic Syndrome.  Visceral fat and insulin resistance go hand-in-hand, so this is no wonder. Several studies have shown that stress and Metabolic Syndrome are related giving still more evidence to this relationship. 
10. Diabetes. With the decreases in insulin sensitivity and the increases in blood glucose very often comes Type II diabetes according to the latest research as well.
11. Cholesterol. Ever feel like you're fighting a losing battle with your cholesterol levels. Well, the primary reason is likely Saturated Fat, but cortisol can play a role as well and studies have shown that elevated cortisol can in turn elevate cholesterol levels as well. 
12. Erectile Dysfunction. Stress has been tied into erectile dysfucntion and itis no wonder considering that it almost always raises cortisol, which in turn raises so many cardiovascular risk factors. 
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21) Psychiatry Research, March 1983, 8(3):191-197, "Relationship of cortisol hypersecretion to brain CT scan alterations in depressed patients European Urology, January 2005, 47(1):80-86,"Prevalence and Risk Factors for ErectileDysfunction in 2869 Men Using a Validated Questionnaire"
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